Saturn moon Enceladus may have salty ocean

Thursday, June 23, 2011

NASA’s Cassini–Huygens spacecraft has discovered evidence for a large-scale saltwater reservoir beneath the icy crust of Saturn’s moon Enceladus. The data came from the spacecraft’s direct analysis of salt-rich ice grains close to the jets ejected from the moon. The study has been published in this week’s edition of the journal Nature.

Data from Cassini’s cosmic dust analyzer show the grains expelled from fissures, known as tiger stripes, are relatively small and usually low in salt far away from the moon. Closer to the moon’s surface, Cassini found that relatively large grains rich with sodium and potassium dominate the plumes. The salt-rich particles have an “ocean-like” composition and indicate that most, if not all, of the expelled ice and water vapor comes from the evaporation of liquid salt-water. When water freezes, the salt is squeezed out, leaving pure water ice behind.

Cassini’s ultraviolet imaging spectrograph also recently obtained complementary results that support the presence of a subsurface ocean. A team of Cassini researchers led by Candice Hansen of the Planetary Science Institute in Tucson, Arizona, measured gas shooting out of distinct jets originating in the moon’s south polar region at five to eight times the speed of sound, several times faster than previously measured. These observations of distinct jets, from a 2010 flyby, are consistent with results showing a difference in composition of ice grains close to the moon’s surface and those that made it out to the E ring, the outermost ring that gets its material primarily from Enceladean jets. If the plumes emanated from ice, they should have very little salt in them.

“There currently is no plausible way to produce a steady outflow of salt-rich grains from solid ice across all the tiger stripes other than salt water under Enceladus’s icy surface,” said Frank Postberg, a Cassini team scientist at the University of Heidelberg in Germany.

The data suggests a layer of water between the moon’s rocky core and its icy mantle, possibly as deep as about 50 miles (80 kilometers) beneath the surface. As this water washes against the rocks, it dissolves salt compounds and rises through fractures in the overlying ice to form reserves nearer the surface. If the outermost layer cracks open, the decrease in pressure from these reserves to space causes a plume to shoot out. Roughly 400 pounds (200 kilograms) of water vapor is lost every second in the plumes, with smaller amounts being lost as ice grains. The team calculates the water reserves must have large evaporating surfaces, or they would freeze easily and stop the plumes.

“We imagine that between the ice and the ice core there is an ocean of depth and this is somehow connected to the surface reservoir,” added Postberg.

The Cassini mission discovered Enceladus’ water-vapor and ice jets in 2005. In 2009, scientists working with the cosmic dust analyzer examined some sodium salts found in ice grains of Saturn’s E ring but the link to subsurface salt water was not definitive. The new paper analyzes three Enceladus flybys in 2008 and 2009 with the same instrument, focusing on the composition of freshly ejected plume grains. In 2008, Cassini discovered a high “density of volatile gases, water vapor, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, as well as organic materials, some 20 times denser than expected” in geysers erupting from the moon. The icy particles hit the detector target at speeds between 15,000 and 39,000 MPH (23,000 and 63,000 KPH), vaporizing instantly. Electrical fields inside the cosmic dust analyzer separated the various constituents of the impact cloud.

“Enceladus has got warmth, water and organic chemicals, some of the essential building blocks needed for life,” said Dennis Matson in 2008, Cassini project scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.

“This finding is a crucial new piece of evidence showing that environmental conditions favorable to the emergence of life can be sustained on icy bodies orbiting gas giant planets,” said Nicolas Altobelli, the European Space Agency’s project scientist for Cassini.

“If there is water in such an unexpected place, it leaves possibility for the rest of the universe,” said Postberg.

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Australian Air Force crews “at war” with Veterans’ Affairs over compensation

Friday, August 19, 2005The Australian Federal Government has revealed today that it is going to give A$21 million (US $15.76 million) as compensation to approximately 600 former RAAF maintenance workers, who where exposed to highly toxic chemicals while working on the fuel tanks of the nation’s F-111 fleet.

Under the government’s proposal, depending on the amount of exposure, a worker can expect to receive between A$10,000 and A$40,000 (US $7,500 – $30,000) to help cope with the side effects. The aircraft maintenance program started in the 1970s and was suspended in the late 1990s when the former workers started to show signs of medical problems ranging from memory loss to neurological problems.

The F-111 Deseal/Reseal Support Group responded to the government’s package with anger. The Group’s president Ian Fraser said “A$40,000 for a ruined life is simply not enough … We’ve already got people who have died, who are dying, people who have lost their homes.”

He went on to describe that his group, which supports the workers and contractors who where based at Amberley Air Base, was “at war” with Veterans’ Affairs Minister De-Anne Kelly.

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Common Types Of Face Lifts

Common Types Of Face Lifts

by

aavery

As we get older, one of the first places we notice the telltale signs of aging is in our face. The effects of gravity combined with diminished collagen production all add up to wrinkles, crow’s feet, and sagging skin. Even if you feel as though your appearance accurately reflects your energy and youthful spirit, you might not be pleased with the signs of aging. Some people embrace it while others want to do all they can to stop it from progressing.

There are many different variations on how to go about performing a face lift that can make your skin more smooth, help tone and tighten the underlying muscles, and get rid of excess skin. The result is a more youthful appearance and increased confidence. The following are a few different techniques available that could help you achieve the results you’re hoping for.

Cutaneous Facelift

This procedure targets the areas of the lower face and neck. An incision is made at the hairline above the ear and moves behind and below the ear. Excess skin is removed and pulled back, creating a younger look without having to remove and tighten muscles. This is one of the oldest procedures for facial plastic surgery and has fewer complications with respect to the muscles and nerves underneath the skin.

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Traditional Facelift

Like the above procedure, this one accomplishes the same goal. However, the underlying muscles are also lifted and tightened, giving more long-lasting results.

Liquid Facelift

A non-invasive procedure, this technique uses injectable fillers and muscle immobilizers such as BOTOX to minimize fine lines and lift sagging skin. It works great for jowls, lip lines, crow’s feet, and marionette lines. Additionally, it can correct mild asymmetries below the neck and chin.

Mini Facelift

This surgery uses much smaller incisions in multiple places. Although healing can be much faster with this procedure, it’s generally recommended for younger patients with more elastic skin.

Jaw Line Rejuvenation

During this procedure, the surgeon liposuctions the neck to define the jaw line. Sometimes, the doctor will use the fat removed and deposit some of it around the cheeks to add more volume to the area.

Most of the complications from these particular face lifts are similar to other procedures. They include reactions to anesthesia, infections, and hematomas under the skin. It’s important to turn to a board certified surgeon, preferably one who is skilled and has performed this procedure many times in the past.

Depending on the type of face lift you have done, the recovery time can be anywhere from several weeks to a couple of months. Most surgeons will recommend keeping your head elevated for at least the first few days and might prescribe anti-inflammatories. When you attend your consultation, be sure to address any concerns you might have.

Thinking about getting a face lift? Newport News residents can consult with the surgeons at Plastic Surgery Center of Hampton Roads. Find out more by visiting:

pschr.com

.

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Common Types Of Face Lifts

Asbestos discovery triggers evacuation and closure of New Jersey middle school

Tuesday, May 20, 2008

The discovery of the presence of airborne asbestos in a middle school in Montclair, New Jersey Friday prompted the evacuation of over 200 students from the school and the school’s closure. Renaissance Middle School, part of the Montclair Public Schools in New Jersey, was closed Monday and remains closed Tuesday while undergoing asbestos testing and cleaning.

According to a letter sent home to parents by the Superintendent’s Office of Montclair Public Schools on Friday, “plaster may have been disturbed” during construction on new fire doors at the Renaissance School building on Thursday.

An inspection arranged by the school district indicated asbestos was present in the plaster, and a subsequent inspection performed by asbestos consultant Detail Associates revealed “a level of airborne asbestos fibers that exceeded the acceptable range” in the third floor hallway of the school. Montclair Public Schools business administrator Dana Sullivan told The Star-Ledger that testing conducted on March 31 revealed the presence of asbestos in a brown undercoating of plaster at the Renaissance School building.

The safety of our students and staff is always our first concern.

The affected area was sealed off, and some students were moved to other areas of the building while others were moved to off-site locations. District Public Information Officer Laura Federico told The Montclair Times that sixth and seventh graders were transported to Hillside Elementary School, and eighth graders were bussed to Montclair High School. “The safety of our students and staff is always our first concern,” said Federico.

According to The Montclair Times, Detail Associates conducted a cleaning protocol at the school on Saturday and tested the building to make sure it did not contain unacceptable levels of asbestos fibers. The letter sent to parents Friday by the Superintendent’s Office said that Detail Associates had told the district that the building would be “cleaned, tested and cleared for occupancy by Monday morning”. The school remained closed Monday, and a meeting was held between parents and school district officials. A Parent-Teacher Association meeting is planned for Wednesday night.

The Star-Ledger reported that the ongoing asbestos cleanup of the school is being supervised by the state Department of Environmental Protection. At the meeting Monday morning between parents and school district officials, parents demanded that the inside of lockers be included as part of the asbestos cleanup. This additional step in the asbestos inspection process prompted the school’s closure Tuesday. A Monday statement by the Business Office of Montclair Public Schools said that the Renaissance School would remain closed Tuesday for sixth and seventh grade students “so that an extensive cleanup and additional asbestos testing can be completed”. Eighth grade students did not have classes scheduled as a trip to Washington, D.C. had previously been planned; the school trip is unaffected by the recent asbestos incident.

The kids will be able to go back to school soon, and that’s the important part.

Steve Jaraczewski of Detail Associates was present at the district meeting Monday, and said that one of four test samples taken at the school was positive for the presence of airborne asbestos at over six times acceptable levels. Jaraczewski was critical of the asbestos management plan provided by Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newark, which owns the school’s building and leases it to Montclair Public Schools.

Jaraczewski said that the state Department of Environmental Protection has required asbestos management plans since 1988, but that the company that drafted the asbestos plan for the Archdiocese of Newark is out of business. Representative for the archdiocese Jim Goodness emphasized that the building would be back open for classes soon. “The kids will be able to go back to school soon, and that’s the important part,” said Goodness.

Exposure to airborne asbestos can lead to mesothelioma, a cancer which develops in the sac surrounding the lungs and chest cavity, abdominal cavity, or the sac surrounding the heart. Exposure to disturbed asbestos fibers can also lead to lung scarring, a condition called asbestosis, and lung cancer. Patients with malignant mesothelioma generally do not have positive outcomes, and once diagnosed have six months to a year to live.

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First Active offer 100% mortgages in Ireland

Thursday, July 14, 2005

First Active has become the first financial institution to offer 100% mortgages in the Republic of Ireland. The bank previously offered 100% financing to professionals in finance and medicine, but is now to offer this product to anyone who can afford to meet the repayments.

The development is a huge boost for first time home buyers who have been struggling to get on the Irish property market in recent years due to the rapid increase in house prices. A typical first time buyer in Dublin with 92% financing would normally have to put down a deposit of €20,000-€30,000 in cash, but now have the option to produce no deposit.

First Active has said that 100% mortgages will be available across its entire range of mortgage products.

Note however that this is not necessarily an entirely positive development.

The United States and most of Europe have experienced a housing price bubble in recent years. A bubble occurs when buyers purchase a property not because its price is appropriate for its actual value but because they expect the price to significantly rise in the short term permitting resale with a profit.

In other words, the prices people pay for properties becomes divorced from the real value of the property; the purchase is speculative and depends purely upon the expectation that people will continue to buy properties in this way (e.g. without proper consideration of their real value).

The terrible weakness in this is that when the market corrects itself and prices fall to a level where properties are being priced at their actual realistic value, anyone holding a property loses a great deal of money, since the price they paid does not reflect the actual realistic value of the property.

This kind of shock to the housing market is extremely undesirable. Significant write downs in the value of property often significantly depress the economy as a whole.

Less than 100% mortgages force buyers to invest a significant amount of money in the act of purchasing their house, which tends to discourage purely speculative purchasing, thus helping to mediate house price bubbles.

With 100% financing, anyone who can meet repayments can speculatively purchase a property. This naturally encourages pricing bubbles.

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Using Ultrasonic Pest Control Devices For Pest Control

Using Ultrasonic Pest control devices for pest control

by

cleon dann

Birds are an important part of our natural environment Birds live in every region across the globe and there are at least 10,000 recorded species in existence today. Birds have the ability to fly because of their strong yet lightweight skeleton and wings to allow the manipulation of air currents Birds are normally seen all over the world . They are lovable creatures as long as they are outside of the home Birds perching in the balcony or windowpanes can be dangerous, since they carry bacteria and virus that spread diseases. Pest birds can be quite a nuisance Birds may frequently roost or congregate on your roof, dock, boat, or in your patio area. The accumulated droppings can become more than just a nuisance. These droppings may carry serious diseases that can endanger your family, friends, and even pets. Birds are visually attractive; they’re also a major pain as they are quite noisy and can cause significant damage to your home with their droppings. It is for these reasons that many companies offer bird control that is both safe for your home and for the birds themselves. In controlling pest birds no single method is suitable for all cases. It depends on individual situations, the species to control, the number of individuals and their link to the place we want to protect Pest Control is always for most in our minds around the end of spring and the beginning of summer when we see the pests come out in mass.

Mostly used bird control methods discussed here:

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Bird netting: There have been studies that birds could give illnesses when droppings get in contact with people’s skin. Pigeons for example, carry infectious diseases. Making sure that these pigeons do not spread their diseases, bird netting could put an end to your health worrying. Bird netting is the smartest and most affordable way to repel birds on your area.

Bird spikes bird spikes also known as needle spikes or anti roosting spikes are device consisting of long to control pest birds. The needles or spikes are usually all plastic or a plastic base with stainless steel spikes. The specialized spike is the Gutter Spike. It’s also ideal for keeping large pest birds from landing–birds like seagulls, crows, and pigeons. The best bird spikes have a flexible base. This means they will easily conform to curved areas, an ideal feature for many outdoor signs and other hard-to-cover areas. Before installing bird spikes, be sure to clean out the area.

Ultrasonic bird repellent: Ultrasonic pest control uses an ultrasonic sound that humans cannot hear but will make pest very uncomfortable and they will want to flee from. Pests are startled, disorientated and absolutely do not enjoy the uncomfortable sounds the Ultrasonic Pest Control delivers.

Author is an executive with

bird rid

Article Source:

ArticleRich.com

Bloc Québécois raise concern over remark made by hockey player

Wednesday, May 2, 2007

Team Canada and Phoenix Coyotes hockey captain Shane Doan says he’ll quit his position after the Bloc Québécois political party raised some concern over an “ethnic remark” he made two years ago.

A motion demanding officials from Hockey Canada and Sport Canada to appear before a House of Commons Committee on Thursday, was supported by the Conservatives, the Liberals, the NDP, and the Bloc Québécois.

“Sports Canada has certain objectives, and that includes reflecting what they call the Canadian reality,” said Bloc Québécois leader Gilles Duceppe. “The government has just cut lots of money from community groups under the pretext that they didn’t share the government’s priorities. “Hockey Canada receives (public) money, right? We have a right to ask questions.”

The National Hockey League (NHL) defends his remark made in 2005 against French-Canadian Hockey referee Stephane Auger.

According to a statement by NHL Linesman Michel Cormier, the game was a December 15, 2005 game which had the Phoenix Coyotes vs. Montreal Canadiens, it had four French-Canadian referees. He recalls himself, after the second period, skating to the Coyotes bench.

“While skating alongside me while I was headed toward my room, that’s when [Doan] said the words, ‘Fucking Frenchman, did a good job,’ and he skated away,” said Cormier recalling the event. “We were side by side.”

Doan, who has “strong Christian values”, says he did, indeed, make a remark about the four referees but denies any bad language.

Doan, who agreed to a $22.75-million five year contract with the Coyotes, says he was trying to calm down goaltender Curtis Joseph, who was angered that the Montreal Canadiens did not get a penalty. Doan says his real comment was: “Four French referees in Montreal, Cuje, figure it out.”

In January 2006, he launched a $250,000 lawsuit against former Minister of Sport and Liberal MP Denis Coderre for “falsely” accusing him of making the remark. Coderre, last year, demanded Doan be asked to not join Team Canada in the 2006 Turin Olympics. On April 2, 2007, Coderre filed a defamation lawsuit against Doan seeking $45,000 in damages.

“I take huge pride in playing for my country, I take huge pride in representing everybody,” Doan said. “For them to question me, being the captain, is incredibly disappointing. For someone to…say that I’m a bad role model, I’d rather have you call me the worst hockey player in the world and I don’t deserve to be on the team, anything like that, but don’t question my character,” he said. “I don’t understand how someone can attack when I’ve been cleared by the NHL, I never said it, yet they can just throw it out in the House of Commons.”

Just today, Doan scored the game-winning goal in a 4-2 preliminary round victory over Norway at the Men’s World Hockey Championship in Moscow, Russia.

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NASA spacecraft enters Mars orbit

Sunday, March 12, 2006

A NASA spacecraft set to probe Mars reached orbit around the planet on Friday, joining five others currently active. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter‘s two-year mission is expected to gather more information about Mars than all 12 previous successful missions put together.

The MRO’s tasks will include scouting for possible future landing sites, analyzing the planet’s atmosphere, monitoring its weather, and searching for locations where there may have been water in the distant past. The US$450 million spacecraft is the most advanced probe so far sent to Mars, and can radio back 10 times more data to Earth than any previous probe. Cameras on the MRO can see objects on the planet the size of a card table.

After its seven-month journey toward the planet, reaching orbit was a critical step. Several previous probes have failed due to the difficulty of the precise timing needed to keep the spacecraft from being pulled in by the planet’s gravity. Twenty-one of the thirty-three previous probes have failed for some reason to complete their missions.

Project manager Jim Graf, who described himself as “relieved” at the “picture perfect” completion of this step, expects the results to “rewrite the science textbooks on Mars.” The next step is for the craft to begin “aerobraking” to slow down and change its orbit from elliptical to circular.

The total cost of the mission, including the spacecraft, launch, and support team, is US$720 million.

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Wikinews interviews Joe Schriner, Independent U.S. presidential candidate

Saturday, April 17, 2010

Journalist, counselor, painter, and US 2012 Presidential candidate Joe Schriner of Cleveland, Ohio took some time to discuss his campaign with Wikinews in an interview.

Schriner previously ran for president in 2000, 2004, and 2008, but failed to gain much traction in the races. He announced his candidacy for the 2012 race immediately following the 2008 election. Schriner refers to himself as the “Average Joe” candidate, and advocates a pro-life and pro-environmentalist platform. He has been the subject of numerous newspaper articles, and has published public policy papers exploring solutions to American issues.

Wikinews reporter William Saturn? talks with Schriner and discusses his campaign.

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Bbq And Gas Grill Replacement Parts: Grill Ignitors}

Submitted by: Jason Broderick

As a BBQ grill technician, I get to see thousands of barbeque grills at their worst. People call me when the grill will not heat properly, can’t ignite or begins to fall apart with rust and corrosion. I repair gas barbeque grills and I get to see how you treat your BBQ, what you will eat from.

The most common misconception I deal with is a belief grill ignitors do not last. Many customers will tell me their barbeque grill has served them for over ten years but the ignitor stopped working within six months. More often than not, when I test the ignition it works just fine, aside from being ignored for the past nine and a half years. Inject a little education and most clients are able to use the barbeque grill ignition for many years before needing a replacement part.

A gas grill ignitor is made up of several different parts although most backyard chefs envision it as a single fragile item. The module is often referred to as a spark generator and generate sparks is what it does. A module can contain a button to act as the electronic switch, spark generator and battery pack. These items can also be installed separately depending on the barbecue grill design. The switch is usually accessible but the ignition module is mounted behind the control panel. Placement behind the control panel keeps you from breaking it and keeps the weather from directly affecting its performance.

The electrode is attached to the module by an electrode wire that runs into the firebox of the gas BBQ grill. The electrode acts just like a spark plug in your car. The charge from the battery is activated when the button is pressed, rotary is turned, control knob recessed, etc. The battery charge is converted within the module and sent to the electrode. The electrode sparks and gas ignites. It is really that simple and the simpler the tool, the more difficult to damage.

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A barbeque grill ignition electrode should be easy to locate in the firebox of your gas grill once the cooking grates, briquette tray or heat shields have been removed. It will even look like a small spark plug with a porcelain housing and a steel rod coming through it. Often there will be a second steel rod mounted alongside the rod coming through the porcelain or a stainless steel collector box will mount over the electrode to protect and ground it. Whether your gas grill electrode is a single steel rod in a porcelain sleeve, two steel rods or is contained in a stainless collection box, this is where the electric charge arcs to ignite your gas grill.

One reason a barbeque grill ignitor will seem to function poorly is the same reason the spark plug in your car must have its gap adjusted when it is installed. Whether the electrode is grounding against the gas grill burner, the collector box or secondary steel rod, the distance has to be close enough to make a strong connection but far enough apart to maximize the exposure to gas flowing from the burner. Check the gas grill manual and properly gap the distance to achieve the best spark from your ignitor.

If you purchased your gas barbecue grill from a grill store as opposed to a giant retailer selling everything but properly educated in nothing or buying it online and assembling it yourself the specialty grill store will have completed this for you as part of the assembly of the grill.

The primary reason most people believe their gas BBQ grill ignitor is broken is grease. The electrode must mount inside the grill near the gas burner in order to access the gas as it leaves the burner. The proximity to the gas it ignites also places the electrode in the path of falling grease. Grease, dirt, rain, water and pieces of food all combine to hinder the effectiveness of your gas grill ignition. When the button is pushed, clicked or turned and the gas does not ignite most backyard grillers will assume the ignitor is broken. Often it can be a single drop of grease that is stopping the arc from connecting to the ground.

Even the rare client who truly does clean their gas barbeque regularly will focus on the grill parts they can see or the BBQ parts that touch their food. The more devoted cook may remove the cooking grates to clean the rock tray, heat shields and sometimes poke put the gas ports on the gas burner. All this is great but an extra thirty seconds to lightly brush the collector box or the exposed electrode will keep the ignition function safely through many years of use. When you clean the electrode, rely on your de-greasing spray. If too much pressure is applied and the porcelain sleeve gets cracked, the electrode will have to be replaced. Spray the de-greaser, lightly brush the steel rods then replace the battery and activate the switch. Most ignitors today use a battery operated button but many grills still use rotary knobs or piezo clicking buttons. Check the arc to make sure the spark is a solid blue and adjust the gap if necessary.

I have assisted thousands of backyard chefs over the past several years and a vast majority of them have believed a faulty ignitor was standard practice on a gas grill. It is not. A little education and a little maintenance and your ignitor will exceed your expectations and safely ignite your barbeque grill every time.

About the Author: At

Grill-Repair.com

we sell replacement grill parts for all model and make of barbeque grill. If you are having a problem with your BBQ grill ignitor search by type of barbecue grill parts or search by make and model of BBQ at:

Grill-Repair.com

We have everything you need for your backyard. We also have a Blog Site at:

Grill-Repair Blog

full of articles to help

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